Year Implemented


Project Type

Managed realignment


United Kingdom


Blackwater Estuary (Essex)





Habitat(s) Created
  • Mudflat

  • Saltmarsh


21 Hectares

Why Undertaken
  • Improve Flood Protection

  • Demonstration or Pilot Project

  • Habitat Creation

Project Description Summary

This involved the creation of one breach (60m wide).

Documents/References uploaded
  • ABP Research & Consultancy Ltd, 1998. Review of coastal habitat creation, restoration and recharge schemes. Southampton, 190p.
  • Atkinson, P.W., Crooks, S., Grant, A., Rehfish, M.M., 2001. The success of creation and restoration schemes in producing intertidal habitat suitable for waterbirds. No. 425, English Nature, Peterborough, 167p.
  • Boorman, L.A., Ashton, C., 1997. The productivity of salt marsh vegetation at Tollesbury, Essex and Stiffkey, Norfolk, England. Mangroves and Saltmarshes 1, 113126.
  • Chang, Y.H., Scrimshaw, M.D., MacLeod, C.L., Lester, J.N., 2001. Flood defence in the Blackwater estuary, Essex, UK: The impact of sedimentological and geochemical changes on salt marsh development in the Tollesbury managed realignment site. Marine Pollution Bulletin 42(6), 470-481.
  • Garbutt, R.A., Reading, C.J., Wolters, M., Gray, A.J., Rothery, P., 2006. Monitoring the development of intertidal habitats on former agricultural land after the managed realignment of coastal defences at Tollesbury, Essex, UK. Marine Pollution Bulletin 53(1-4), 155-164.
  • Parker, R., Bolam, S., Foden, J., Morris, D., Brown, S., Chesher, T., Fletcher, C., Möller, I. 2004. Suitability Criteria for Habitat Creation Report I: Reviews of present practices and scientific literature relevant to site selection criteria. DEFRA R&D Technical Report FD1917TR1. Defra, London, 178p.
  • Reading, C.J., Garbutt, R.A., Watts, C.W., Rothery, P., Turk, A., Yates, M., Boffey, C., Saunders, J. and Wolters, M., 2008. Managed realignment at Tollesbury. Defra R&D Technical Report FD 1922/TR. Center for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) Wallingford, 126p; available at:
  • Reading, C.J., Paramor, O.A.L., Garbutt, R.A., Chesher, R., Hall, J.R., Hughes, R.G., Mann, J.L., Masters, N.D., Myhill, D.G., Rothery, P., Spearman, J.R., Stevenson, J.R., Wolters, M., Gray, A.J., 2002. Managed realignment at Tollesbury and Saltram. Final report. Defra Project CSA2313. Dorchester, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, 199p.
  • Wolters, M., Garbutt, A., Bakker, J.P., 2005. Salt-marsh restoration: evaluating the success of de-embankments in north-west Europe. Biological Conservation 123(22), 249-268.

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